That man is a three part being is understood from many scriptures….
Specifically from Heb 4:12 “For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two- edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.” And  1 Thes 5:23 “And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.”
both soul and spirit being used as descriptive of the whole person a part for the whole.

Luke 14:26 If any man come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple.
What does it mean to hateth is own soul?
What does it mean to lose your soul? To gain your soul?

The difference between soul and spirit is not one of substance but of operation.

Lk 1:46 And Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord, (the soul with its faculties or affections of Intellect, will, emotion, imagination and memory)
       47 And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Savior. (communion, intuitiveness and conscience…..the faculties or senses for worship, faith, hope, love)

PNEUMA is the Greek word corresponding with the Hebrew Ruach in the OC.
What does it mean: spirit…..but also different meanings depending how it is used:
*”God is spirit” John4:24 (not “a” spirit)
*the new nature in the child of God…..  “begotten” in us by God John 3:3-7 1 John 5:1,4
* spirit is that part of the man that is most capable in contact, communion and worship. “God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the Gospel of His Son: Romans 1:9 9
With my soul have I desired thee in the night; yea, with my spirit within me will I seek thee early: Isaiah 26:9
But he that is joined unto the Lord is one spirit. 1 Cor 6:17
* pneuma being imparted to man, making him a “a living psuche” a living soul or being as in Gen 2:7.
man, without life in pneuma, becomes and is called “a dead soul” you cannot separate the spirit of a man from the soul of that same man…they are intrinsic, the same being. But one may have dominion over the other.
To those who say the Bible never says the soul is immortal but subject to annihilation..we would say and show that The Resurrection of men is proof of the souls immortality.
*angels, or spirit beings. As in Acts 8:29 Heb 1:7,14
*demons, or evil spirits as in Mark 7:25,26
*as it relates to the resurrection body as in 1 Cor 15:45 1 Pet 3:18 4:6

There are two main Greek words translated  “life” in the English..  ZOE AND PSUCHE.
Great is the difference between the two Greek words …one relates to its normal use natural life such as animal life, vegetable life….this is called intensive life it is Zoë.

1 John 3:15 “Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer: and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life (Zoë) abiding in him.” (“Ps 16:11 “Thou wilt show me the path of life: in thy presence is fullness of joy; at thy right hand there are pleasures forevermore..” Life eternal is blissful pleasure.)